Data, Information, and Knowledge in Visualization
Authors: Min Chen, Ebert, D. ; Hagen, H. ; Laramee, R.S. ; van Liere, R. ; Ma, K.-L. ; Ribarsky, W. ; Scheuermann, G. ; Silver, D.
In visualization, we use the terms data, information and knowledge extensively, often in an interrelated context. In many cases, they indicate different levels of abstraction, understanding, or truthfulness. For example, "visualization is concerned with exploring data and information," "the primary objective in data visualization is to gain insight into an information space," and "information visualization" is for "data mining and knowledge discovery." In other cases, these three terms indicate data types, for instance, as adjectives in noun phrases, such as data visualization, information visualization, and knowledge visualization. These examples suggest that data, information, and knowledge could serve as both the input and output of a visualization process, raising questions about their exact role in visualization.